Contemporary European Migration and Slovenia
The migration pressures from Eastern Europe and the Western limiting measures. The role of Central European countries as checks on the migration waves from the East. The situation of Slovenia in relation to the migration pressures from the East and the refugee currents from the Balkans; Slovenia's limited emigration possibilities and the principles of Slovene immigration policy. Some basic points for future migration research.
This treatise introduces a description of the categories of economic, political and other types of emigrants who, since the disintegration of the Socialist regimes of Eastern Europe and the conflict-ridden birth of new nation states, have been pressing towards Western Europe. The Western European immigrant countries are protecting themselves against immigration pressure from the East through harmonized administrative, limitational measures which are effective in the short term but do not, in the long term, resolve the problems Which stimulate emigration in the East. The Western countries receive vital support for these measures through the public's indisposition towards new immigration pressures. These pressures also have an influence on the uncertainty experienced by permanent immigrants in Western countries. The immigrant Western countries assign to the Central European, post-socialist states the role of checking the migration waves towards the West.
The migration policy of the EC is divergent; it allows citizens of EC countries freedom of movement, something which does not apply for citizens of non-member countries. For these people immigration limits are in effect and are determined by the nation-state members of the EC. This divergence raises problems of integration in the Western immigrant countries.
The position of Slovenia is similar to that of other Central European countries with regard to the checking of emigration Waves arising from the East. Due to the Violence accompanying the dissolution of the former Yugoslavia, numerous categories of forced immigrants are coming to Slovenia, while on the other hand no distinct emigration possibilities are clear for Slovenia apart from the undesired brain drain. In conjunction with considerations on the migration policy of Slovenia, the hypothesis has been put forward of the possibility of a rapid transition from a traditional to a more modern nation state, creating the conditions for the establishment of ethnic pluralism in relationships between the indigenous and immigrant inhabitants. In the early period of the development of the Slovene nation state, favourable conditions for cooperation with Slovene emigrant communities throughout the World are arising, however, conditions for immigrants in Slovenia in this period are not favourable, as with Slovenia’s gaining of independence they are experiencing a transition from being internal to international immigrants. This section completes the description of the specificity of immigrant ethnic communities which must be considered in the formulation of a Slovene migration policy and in the assuring of special rights to immigrants. The treatise presents certain problems of refugees in Slovenia who, having fled the areas of military conflict in Croatia and particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, are searching for a haven in Slovenia en masse.
Among the general principles for the formulation of a contemporary migration policy, the following are mentioned and clarified ethnic equality with tolerant ethnic pluralism, the autonomy of immigrant ethnic communities, the rights of Various categories of immigrants, freedom of movement and limitation of forced migrations, the possibility of establishing a migration policy in emigrant countries and the necessity of harmonizing migration policies between emigrant and immigrant societies.
Current conditions combined with the events in Eastern Europe are opening a new area of emigration in the East, changing the character of migration processes, which are losing their Voluntary nature, limiting freedom of movement, preventing the organization of migrations and their temporary nature, and hindering the development of the processes of ethnic pluralism among permanent immigrants.
In the section om future orientations in migration research an emphasis emerges on the inclusion of national and comparative studies in the context of global Social events which reflect international migration processes. In light of this it appears appropriate to link Slovene migration research with contemporary changes in Europe. From an analysis of the character of Slovenia it follows that for this country the aforementioned principles are useful in the formulation of migration policies Which Will represent the starting point for further research. Future research activity could continue to be directed towards determining the connections between Slovene emigrants, indigenous Slovene communities abroad and the homeland country of Slovenia, towards a critical investigation of the assimilation and disjunctive processes and towards the study of the processes of ethnic pluralism and interculturalism.