Control over Migrants and Migration Movements in Imperial Austria from the 18th century to WWI
The article deals with migration control in Imperial Austria from the times of Maria Theresa up to the end of WWI. It examines the transition from the absolutistic migration regime to the deregulation and the liberalisation of migration in the second half of the 19th century, the restrictions on freedom of movement and the treatment of enemy aliens during the war, and the post-war implementation of the state regulation of migration. Special emphasis is placed on the control and limitations of freedom of emigration in the laissez-faire period from the 1860s to WWI. The need for a differentiated approach to the topic is also addressed because of regional and local differences in implementing the migration legislation.
KEY WORDS: migration control, migration regime, migration policy, WWI, Imperial Austria
CONTROL OVER MIGRANTS AND MIGRATION MOVEMENTS IN IMPERIAL AUSTRIA FROM THE 18TH CENTURY TO WWI
The article deals with migration control in Imperial Austria from the times of Maria Theresa up to the end of WWI. It examines the characteristics of the absolutistic migration regime, the deregulation and liberalisation of migration in the second half of the 19th century, the restrictions on the freedom of movement, the imposition of state control over the movements of the labour force and the treatment of enemy aliens during WWI. The institutionalisation of the state management of migration in the newly-established post-war states is also discussed. The main focus is on the forms of migration control in the laissez-faire period from 1867 onwards, when the freedom of emigration was institutionalised. The article discusses passports and other documents for travelling abroad, the difficulties of controlling the illegal emigration of conscripts, the activities of shipping companies and their agents, and the restrictions on freedom of migration practiced by the local administrative authorities. The article also highlights the implications of the legislation on residence and the welfare system, and the discretional power the administrative officers had on internal movement and migrations abroad. In conclusion the author stresses the need for a differential approach to the issue of migration control due to different implementations of the legislation at regional and at local levels.