THE POLITICAL-INTELLECTUAL REASONS FOR MIGRATION IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY.TYPICAL CASES OF CZECH WOMEN IN THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE.
This article explores destiny of eight Czech women, whose intellectual gifts or personal relations with men put them on the road of public prominence. It was in times, when it was most unusual and dangerous for women, and when their migration and imigration was a sign of the overall difficult political conditions, providing little opportunities for women´s educational, cultural and public activities and ambitions.
Despite significant tragic features related to the lives and struggles of individual discussed women, each of them left for the next generations a unique and valuable legacy of their work and often an example of courageous stands.
The paper is covering basically two periods: pre-constitutional (upto 1867) and the constitutional. In the first period migration was involuntary, blocking literary and intellectual ambitions of women. Only an unrealistic degree of idealism was keeping on the literary writing of the most gifted woman (B. Němcová). Migration provided knowledge about neglected areas of nation´s life, and awarness of their worth. In the second period migration was mostly used to advance old dreams and ambitions.
In both cases women had to struggle with many difficulties and obstacles, and usually they achieved only part of what they hoped and planned. As they became more ambitious, they became stronger and more active, often working at the edge of exhaustion. Experience from different countries allowed for comparisons and a useful degree of cooparation. Courageous young women striving for university education, first in medicine (A. Bayerová, B. Kecková), not available in the Empire, set good example for Czech women, who began to demand relatively early the possibility of the secondary education and the possibility to obtain university education at home. Migration of „Czech“ women from foreign countries to the Czech Kingdom, was beneficial in many respects, although women were hardly aware of it. At least such influences were bringing more initiative into the Czech community, greater trust that work for the benefit of the nation was meaningful, especially in relation to the future (J. Zemanová-Humpal, Ch. G. Masaryková).
These women, building on their experince, were unusually strong, and their strength came from several source, the most important was love for others, faith in positive potentials of human beings, including women, and firm uncompromising character.